what is cell respiration | Cellular Respiration flashcards


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what is cellular respiration? Respiration is the release of energy from food.
what is the source of energy for cellular respiration? Food
what is the formula for cellular respiration? C6H12+O6 ---> Cell respiration 6CO2+6H20+Energy
when does cellular respiration occur? It happens all the time in every living thing.
what is aerobic respiration? it is the process where cells use oxygen to release energy
Aerobic respiration takes place in which three major reaction pathways? Glycolysis, kreb cycle and Electron transport chain
which organisms undergo glycolysis? all living organisms undergo glycolysis
where does glycolysis occur? it occurs in the cytoplasm
what is the goal of glycolysis? the goal of glycolysis is to break down glucose to form two pyruvates
which molecules does glycolysis produce? 4 ATP and 2 NADH, but 2 ATP molecules are used up in the process, therefore there is a net of 2 ATP and 2 NADH
Does glycolysis require oxygen? no, it does not require oxygen and does not produce a lot of energy either
what is the first step in glycolysis? the first step is the phosphorylation of glucose by hexokinase to form glucose 6 phosphate (G6P).
what is the second step of glycolysis? 2 PGAL are converted to 2 pyruvates, this creates 4 ATP's and 2 NADH molecules
For every one molecule of sugar glucosewhich is oxidized __________ molecule of pyruvic acid are produced 2
The enzymes of glycolysis in a eukaryotic cell are located in the cytosol
During glycolysis, the major energy generating step involves? glyceraldehyde-3 -dehydrogenase
Glucose from the breakdown of glycogen is obtained in the? the liver by phosphorolysis the muscles by phosphorolysis
where does the reactions of the kreb cycle occur? the reactions take place in the mitochondria in eukaryotic cells, and in the cytosol in prokayrotic cells
which co-enzymes are reduced to conserve energy? NAD+ and uniquinone (Q)
what is the first step of the kreb cycle? acetyl coA is produced from pyruvate by pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
what is the second step of the kreb cycle? acetyl CoA and oxaloacetate combine to form citrate
what is the third step of the kreb cycle? isocitrate is produced from citrate
what is the fourth step of the kreb cycle? isocitrate is reduced, alpha-ketoglutarate is produced from isocitrate, this process involve isocitrate dehydrogenanse
what is the 5th step of the kreb cycle? succinyl CoA is produced from alpha-ketoglutarate by alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex
what is the 6th step of the kreb cycle? GTP/ATP is formed, succinate is produced from succinyl-coA
what is the 7th step of the kreb cycle? fumate is produced from succinate, QH2 is formed
what is the 8th step of the kreb cycle? malate is produced from fumarate by fumarase
what is the 9th step of the kreb cycle? malate ----> oxaloacetate
where does the electron transport chain happen? it happens in the inner membrane of the mitochondria
what is the goal of the ETC? it's goal is to break down NADH and FADH2, pump H+ into the outer compartments of the mitochondria
where does the ETC reacts take place? they take place in the mitochondria
Why is the electron transport chain called a chain It involves a series of molecules, mostly proteins, which are sequentially linked to each other.
What leaves the citric acid cycle to enter and serve as fuel for the the electron transport chain? 6 NADH and 2 FADH2
Where are the molecules of the electron transport chain embedded? partition-like mitochondrial structures called cristae
Is oxygen required for electron transport? Yes, Oxygen is required for electron transport
How many molecules of oxygen are consumed for each glucose molecule? six molecules of oxygen are consumed for every molecule of glucose
What starts the electron cascade? NADH is oxidized to NAD+ with the release of energy which starts the electron cascade
What is the electron cascade in he electron transport chain? It can be described as electrons sliding down from high energy as electron carrier molecules undergo sequential redox
What is the last atom in the electron transport chain? Oxygen
Why do electrons move downhill in the electron transport chain? because each carrier molecule has a greater affinity for electrons than it's uphill neighbor
what happens to ADP in the electron transport chain? The ADP is reduced to ATP
What does the final oxygen atom in the chain capture and what does it form at the bottom of the hill? It captures the cascading hydrogen electron at the bottom of the hill to form H2O
What is another fuel for the electron transport chain other than NADH? FADH2
Why is FADH2 less significant than NADH? It enters the electron transport chain at a lower energy level and produces 1/3 less energy than NADH
What substances are produced from the electron transport chain? 32 molecules of ATP and 6 molecules of water
what does anaerobic mean? anaerobic mean without air
what is anaerobic respiration? anaerobic respiration is a kind of respiration where food is partially oxidized in a process that does not involve oxygen
Between anaerobic respiration and aerobic respiration, which produces more energy? aerobic respiration
what are obligate anaerobes? they are organisms that do not use oxygen during respiration
what are facultative anaerobes? they are organisms that respire anaerobically during periods of oxygen shortage

what is cellular respiration?

what is the source of energy for cellular respiration?

what is the formula for cellular respiration?

when does cellular respiration occur?

what is aerobic respiration?

Aerobic respiration takes place in which three major reaction pathways?

which organisms undergo glycolysis?

where does glycolysis occur?

what is the goal of glycolysis?

which molecules does glycolysis produce?

Does glycolysis require oxygen?

what is the first step in glycolysis?

what is the second step of glycolysis?

For every one molecule of sugar glucosewhich is oxidized __________ molecule of pyruvic acid are produced

The enzymes of glycolysis in a eukaryotic cell are located in the

During glycolysis, the major energy generating step involves?

Glucose from the breakdown of glycogen is obtained in the?

where does the reactions of the kreb cycle occur?

which co-enzymes are reduced to conserve energy?

what is the first step of the kreb cycle?

what is the second step of the kreb cycle?

what is the third step of the kreb cycle?

what is the fourth step of the kreb cycle?

what is the 5th step of the kreb cycle?

what is the 6th step of the kreb cycle?

what is the 7th step of the kreb cycle?

what is the 8th step of the kreb cycle?

what is the 9th step of the kreb cycle?

where does the electron transport chain happen?

what is the goal of the ETC?

where does the ETC reacts take place?

Why is the electron transport chain called a chain

What leaves the citric acid cycle to enter and serve as fuel for the the electron transport chain?

Where are the molecules of the electron transport chain embedded?

Is oxygen required for electron transport?

How many molecules of oxygen are consumed for each glucose molecule?

What starts the electron cascade?

What is the electron cascade in he electron transport chain?

What is the last atom in the electron transport chain?

Why do electrons move downhill in the electron transport chain?

what happens to ADP in the electron transport chain?

What does the final oxygen atom in the chain capture and what does it form at the bottom of the hill?

What is another fuel for the electron transport chain other than NADH?

Why is FADH2 less significant than NADH?

What substances are produced from the electron transport chain?

what does anaerobic mean?

what is anaerobic respiration?

Between anaerobic respiration and aerobic respiration, which produces more energy?

what are obligate anaerobes?

what are facultative anaerobes?

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