what is DNA | DNA flashcards


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what does DNA stand for? Deoxyribonucleic acid
where is DNA found? in the nucleus
what is the function of DNA? it hold the herditary genetic information. It is what chromosomes are made of
What makes up DNA? it is made up of repeating nucleotide subunits
what are the four types of nitrogenous bases? Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine
what does Adenine pair with? Thymine
what does Cytosine pair with? Guanine
who suggested the double helix structure? James Watson and Francis Crick
what is a double helix structure? it is two spiral wound strands around each other
what is chargaff's rule state? it states that DNA has a 1:1 ration of pyrimidine and purine bases. I.e the amount of A = amount of T and the amount of C = amount of G
How are DNA stands complementary? the bases on one strand match up with the bases of the other stand
which sugar is present in DNA? deoxyribose
what is the central dogma? this is the process wheregenes flow into proteins through translation and transcription
what are pyrimidines? cytosine and Thymine
what are purines? Adenine and Guanine
what is the structure of a nucleotide? it consists of a phopahate group, a deoxyribose sugar ans a nitrogenous base
what is DNA replication? it is the process by which DNA copies itself
when do replication happen? it happens when chromosomes copy themselves before mitosis and meiosis
what is semi-conservative replication? this is when each piece of DNA is made up of 1 older strand and 1 newer strand
Does DNA leave the nucleus? DNA never leaves the nucleus
what is RNA? RNA is a copy of the DNA that can safely go outside the nucleus into the cytoplasm
what does RNA stand for? ribonucleic acid
How many stands does RNA have? one
what is the replication folk? it is a Y shaped region where the parentak strands of DNA are unwound
what is the leading strand? it is the strand that runs in the 5' to 3' direction
what is the lagging strand? it is the strand that is replicated in the 3' to 5' direction, and it is synthesied with the help of Okazaki fragments
what are Okazaki fragments? they are segments of the lagging strand as it is synthesised
what does DNA polymerase? it is reponsible for the catalysis of a new strand
what does DNA helicase do? it "unzips" or breaks the hydrogen bonds between the bases of the strands
what does primase do? primase is an enzyme that copies copies DNA templates stands by making an RNA strand complementary to it
what the function of DNA polymarase III? it catalyzes the chemical reaction for polymerization of necleotides. it begins the synthesis of DNA in the 5' to 3' direction
what's the function of DNA polymarase I? it synthesizes nucloetides onto primers on the lagging strand, forming okazaki fragments.
what's the function of ligase? it connects the okazaki fragments together, an area that DNA pol I is unable to synthesis
what's the function of telomerase? it catalyzes the lengthing of telomarase
What is DNA ligase 1 ? Is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the LIG1 gene. DNA ligases are important tools for DNA replication and repair in living organisms.
What is DNA polymerase I (or Pol I) ? Is an enzyme that participates in the process of prokaryotic DNA replication.
What is DNA polymerase II (Pol II) ? Is a prokaryotic DNA-Dependent DNA polymerase encoded by the PolB gene.
What is DNA polymerase III ? DNA polymerase III Holoenzyme is the primary enzyme complex involved in prokaryotic DNA replication.

what does DNA stand for?

where is DNA found?

what is the function of DNA?

What makes up DNA?

what are the four types of nitrogenous bases?

what does Adenine pair with?

what does Cytosine pair with?

who suggested the double helix structure?

what is a double helix structure?

what is chargaff's rule state?

How are DNA stands complementary?

which sugar is present in DNA?

what is the central dogma?

what are pyrimidines?

what are purines?

what is the structure of a nucleotide?

what is DNA replication?

when do replication happen?

what is semi-conservative replication?

Does DNA leave the nucleus?

what is RNA?

what does RNA stand for?

How many stands does RNA have?

what is the replication folk?

what is the leading strand?

what is the lagging strand?

what are Okazaki fragments?

what does DNA polymerase?

what does DNA helicase do?

what does primase do?

what the function of DNA polymarase III?

what's the function of DNA polymarase I?

what's the function of ligase?

what's the function of telomerase?

What is DNA ligase 1 ?

What is DNA polymerase I (or Pol I) ?

What is DNA polymerase II (Pol II) ?

What is DNA polymerase III ?

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