what is RNA | RNA flashcards

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what does RNA stand for? Ribonucleic acid
what are the four types of ribonuclotide bases? adenine, cytosine, guanine and uracil
what kind of sugar is found in the RNA? ribose
what does each ribonucleotide base consist of? it consists of a ribose sugar, a phospate group and a nitrogenous base
Adjacent ribose nucletide bases are normally attached chemically to one another through what kind of bonds? phosphodiester bonds
Is RNA single or double stranded? single
What enzyme synthesizes RNA from DNA? RNA polymarase
Under which process does RNA polymarse synthesis RNA from DNA? transcription
RNA is translated into proteins by? ribosomes
What are the three types of RNA involved in translation? mRNA, tRNA and rRNA
How is RNA different from DNA? the sugars are different, ribose in RNA and deoxyribose in DNA, RNA is single stranded while DNA id double stranded, RNA contains uracil while DNA contains thymine
what is the function of RNA? it's function is to assemble amino acids together to form proteins
what are introns? they are pre-mRNA molecules that have small pieces cut out of them before they go into action
what are exons? they are the remaining pre-mRNA that are spliced together to form the final mRNA
Does RNA contain thymine as one of the nitrogenous bases? no, it contains uracil instead
what is the function of mRNA? it carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus to the cytosol
what is the function of tRNA? it takes the amino acids from the cytosol to the ribosomes
what is the function of rRNA? it makes the ribosomes where proteins are made
what are prokaryotic ribosomes? they are 70s particles, with the large (50 s) and smaller (30 s) subunites
what are eukarotic ribosomes? they are 80s particles, with the larger (60 s) and smaller (40 s) subunites
what is transcription? it is the process by which genetic information is copied from DNA to RNA
The process by which RNA reads the genetic code is called? Transcription
what is mRNA? it is the messenger ribonucleic acid
what does mRNA do? it helps in the transfer of genetic information from DNA to the ribosome
what enzymes are needed for transcription? RNA polymarase, also requires helper proteins
what does the first step of transciption called? pre-initiation
what happens during pre-initiation? co-factors and RNA polymerase unwind the DNA to make an initiation bubble
what is the second step of transcription? initiation
what happens during initiation? transcription factors help the RNA polymerase attach to the correct spot on the DNA
what are transcription factors? they are proteins that help the RNA polymarase bind to the DNA molecule
what is the third step of transcription? promoter clearance
what is the fourth step of transcription? elogation
what is the fifth step of transcription? termination
what happens during promoter clearance? the promoter proteins help the RNA polymerase to clear the promoter region of the DNA
what happens if the RNA polymerase does not need the promoter proteins? it falls off the DNA
what happens during elongation? polymerase moves throught the antisence strand putting the correct nuclotide in order, making a longer mRNA strand
during which phase of interphase does transcription occur? G1
what is translation? it is the process of assembling polypeptides from the information in the mRNA
what is a codon? it is a combination of 3 mRNA nucleotide
what is the start codon? It engages the ribosome to start translating mRNA. The start codon is normally AUG
what is the stop codon? it causes the ribosome to stop translating mRNA
what is a promoter? it is a DNA sequence recognized by the transcription initiation complex

what does RNA stand for?

what are the four types of ribonuclotide bases?

what kind of sugar is found in the RNA?

what does each ribonucleotide base consist of?

Adjacent ribose nucletide bases are normally attached chemically to one another through what kind of bonds?

Is RNA single or double stranded?

What enzyme synthesizes RNA from DNA?

Under which process does RNA polymarse synthesis RNA from DNA?

RNA is translated into proteins by?

What are the three types of RNA involved in translation?

How is RNA different from DNA?

what is the function of RNA?

what are introns?

what are exons?

Does RNA contain thymine as one of the nitrogenous bases?

what is the function of mRNA?

what is the function of tRNA?

what is the function of rRNA?

what are prokaryotic ribosomes?

what are eukarotic ribosomes?

what is transcription?

The process by which RNA reads the genetic code is called?

what is mRNA?

what does mRNA do?

what enzymes are needed for transcription?

what does the first step of transciption called?

what happens during pre-initiation?

what is the second step of transcription?

what happens during initiation?

what are transcription factors?

what is the third step of transcription?

what is the fourth step of transcription?

what is the fifth step of transcription?

what happens during promoter clearance?

what happens if the RNA polymerase does not need the promoter proteins?

what happens during elongation?

during which phase of interphase does transcription occur?

what is translation?

what is a codon?

what is the start codon?

what is the stop codon?

what is a promoter?

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