Principles of Heredity flashcards

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what are the fundamental events that must happen for a cell to reproduce? it's genetic info is copied. the copied genetic info must be separated from one another. Cell must divide
when prokaryotic cells reproduce, what is replicated? the circular chromosome of the bacterium
Eukaryotic cell replication happens in the process of ____ replication? DNA
Eukaryotic chromosomes are separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear envelope
The nuclear has highly organised internal scaffolding called? nuclear matrix
Humans have ___ number of chromosomes per cell 46
In Eukaryotic cells, there are ____ set of chromosomes two
The presence of two sets of chromosomes is a consequence of? sexual reproduction
where are the two sets of chromosomes inherited from? one set from the mother and the other from the father
What does "homologous pair" mean? it means that each chromosome in one set has a corresponding chromosome in the other set
Humans have _____ chromosome that comprise ___ homologous pairs 46 chromosomes comprising 23 homologous pairs
what does "haploid" mean? it means that the cells have only one copy of each gene
The cell cycle consists of two phases namely, interphase and M phase
what is M phase? mitotic phase. it is the period of active cell division
what is interphase? this is the period between cell divisions
what is cytokinesis? it is the process of cytoplasmic division
Interphase can be divided into? G1, s and G2
what is G1? In G1, the cell grows and proteins used in cell division are synthesized
How long does G1 last? it lasts a few hours
what is Go? Go is the period of cell cycle where the cell exist in a quiescent state.
How long does Go last? extended period of time. Indefinitely or they could reenter G1
what happens during S phase? DNA synthesis. Each chromosome duplicates
After S phase, the cell enters? G2
The _____ checkpoint is reached in G2. G2/M checkpoint
what happens when the G2/M checkpoint has been passed? the cell is ready to divide and enters M phase
what is the length of time that a cell takes in interphase? about 10 hours
what happens during prophase? The chromosome condense and mitotic spindle forms
what happens during prometaphase? the nuclear envelope disintergrate and the spindle microtubles anchor to kinetochores
During M phase there is the separation of the sister chromatids
How do chromosomes arrange themselves during metaphase? they arrange themselves in a single plane called the metaphase plate between the two centrosomes
when does anaphase begin? it begins when the sister chromatides separate and move towards opposite spindle poles
In what stage do the chromosomes arrive at the spindle poles? telophase
How is meiosis different from mitosis? mitosis consists of single nuclear division and it is accompanies by single cell division
How many division do meiosis have? two. meiosis 1 and meiosis 2
Mitosis produce genetically _____ cells, while meiosis produce genetically ___ cells. genetically identical cells while meiosis produce genetically variable cells
Is meiosis preceded by interphase? meiosis is preceded by interphase (G, S and G2 phases)
why is the first meiotic known as reduction? the number of chromosomes are reduced by half
what happens during interphase? the chromosomes relax and are visible as diffuse chromatin
Prophase I is divided into _____ sub-stages? five
what happens during metaphase I? the homologous pairs of chromosomes align along the metaphase plate
In which stage do the homologous chromosomes separate? Anaphase I
In which stage do the chromosomes arrive at the spindle poles and the cytoplasm divide? telophase I
The period between meiosis I and meiosis II is known as? interkinesis
what happens during interkinesis? the nuclear membrane re-forms around chromosomes at each pole
what is the stage that follows interkinesis? prophase II
what happens during prophase II? the chromosomes re-condense, spindle fibers re-form, nuclear envelope breaks down
Which stage follows prophase II? metaphase II
what happens during metaphase II? the chromosomes line up on the metaphase plate
what happens during anaphase II? the kinetochore of the sister chromatids separate and the chromatids are pulled to opposite poles
what happens during telophase II? the chromosomes arrives at the spindle poles, nuclear envelope re-form, cytoplasm divide
In which stage does the cytoplasm divide? cytokinesis

what are the fundamental events that must happen for a cell to reproduce?

when prokaryotic cells reproduce, what is replicated?

Eukaryotic cell replication happens in the process of ____ replication?

Eukaryotic chromosomes are separated from the cytoplasm by

The nuclear has highly organised internal scaffolding called?

Humans have ___ number of chromosomes per cell

In Eukaryotic cells, there are ____ set of chromosomes

The presence of two sets of chromosomes is a consequence of?

where are the two sets of chromosomes inherited from?

What does "homologous pair" mean?

Humans have _____ chromosome that comprise ___ homologous pairs

what does "haploid" mean?

The cell cycle consists of two phases namely,

what is M phase?

what is interphase?

what is cytokinesis?

Interphase can be divided into?

what is G1?

How long does G1 last?

what is Go?

How long does Go last?

what happens during S phase?

After S phase, the cell enters?

The _____ checkpoint is reached in G2.

what happens when the G2/M checkpoint has been passed?

what is the length of time that a cell takes in interphase?

what happens during prophase?

what happens during prometaphase?

During M phase there is the separation of the

How do chromosomes arrange themselves during metaphase?

when does anaphase begin?

In what stage do the chromosomes arrive at the spindle poles?

How is meiosis different from mitosis?

How many division do meiosis have?

Mitosis produce genetically _____ cells, while meiosis produce genetically ___ cells.

Is meiosis preceded by interphase?

why is the first meiotic known as reduction?

what happens during interphase?

Prophase I is divided into _____ sub-stages?

what happens during metaphase I?

In which stage do the homologous chromosomes separate?

In which stage do the chromosomes arrive at the spindle poles and the cytoplasm divide?

The period between meiosis I and meiosis II is known as?

what happens during interkinesis?

what is the stage that follows interkinesis?

what happens during prophase II?

Which stage follows prophase II?

what happens during metaphase II?

what happens during anaphase II?

what happens during telophase II?

In which stage does the cytoplasm divide?

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