neurons and Glia flashcards

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what are neurons neurons are specialized cells that transmit nerve impulses
Cells of the nervous system are known as? nerve cells or neurons
What are nerve cells or neurons specialized for? They are specialized to carry messages through electrochemical processes
The human brain has approximately how many nerve cells or neurons? approximately 100 billion
What is the size of neurons? some neurons are 4 micros wide, and the bigger neurons are 100 microns wide
Neurons are surrounded by a _______ cell membrane
Neurons have a _________ that holds the genes neuron
Neurons have specialized cells called ________ that bring electrical signals to the cell body dendrites
How do neurons communicate with each other? Through electrochemical process
What are the two competing views on neurons? The nervous system as a reticulum and the neuron doctrine
what is the view of the neuron doctrine? the neuron doctrine regards each neuron as an individual component that communicates with the target cell through contiguity rather than continuity
what does the proponents of the reticular theory believe? they believe that neurons are physically continuous with one another forming an interrupted notwork
Who proposed the theory about neural circuit organization? Santiago Ramon
What does the functional polarity theory state? it states that information flows in one direction through most neurons
The main part of a neuron is called? soma or cell body
At the end of the axon is the _____ axon ending
what is between the axon ending and the dendrite of the next neuron a synapse or synaptic gap or synaptic cleft
what are node of Ranvier short lengths where the myelin sheath is interrupted and and axonal membrane is exposed
what are myelin sheath myelin sheath is the insulating covering around the axon
what is a bipolar neuron it is a neuron that has two neurites
Give an example of bipolar neuron retinal cells and olfactory epithelium cells
what is a unipolar neuron it is a neuron that has one neurite
what is a multipolar neuron it is a neuron that has three or more neurites, the most common type of neuron
Give an example of multiple neurons spinal neurons, pyramidal neurons, purkinje cells
what is a neurotransmitter it is a chemical that is stored in the synaptic versticles
what are pseudounipolar cells? Pseudounipolar cells are cells that have two axons rather that an axon and dendrite. One axon extend to spinal cord and the other to the skin or muscle
Give an example of pseudounipolar cells dorsal root ganglion cells
What are the parts of a neuron? dendrite, axon, cell body
An axon conducts nerve impulses _____ from the cell body away from the cell body
what are sensory neurons? sensory neurons are neurons that detect the environment
what are the major selective advantages provided by sensory neurons? Increase stimulus sensitivity.Faster effector cell response. Stronger behavioral response
How does sensory neurons provide stronger behavioral response? Multiple effector cells are influenced
How do sensory neurons transmit their impulses? sensory neurons transmit their information towards the central nervous system. From dendrites to axons to CNS
what are neurons that transmit sensory information called? afferent neurons
what is the function of afferent neurons? afferent neurons transmit information from sensory organs or tissues to the CNS or brain
What is the function of Efferent neurons? Efferent neurons transmit information from CNS to other parts of the body
what are interneurons? Interneurons connect other neurons allowing for effective communication between neurons
what is the function of motor neurons? motor neurons directly or indirectly control the contraction and relaxation of muscles
Motor neurons are also called? motorneurons or efferent neurons
What is the function of the efferent neurons? efferent neurons carry information from the CNS to muscle and other systems
Motor neurons carry electrical signals to ______ muscle
where are interneurons found? Interneurons are found in the spinal cord and the brain
Interneurons are also called _____ associated neurons, relay neurons, connector neurons, local circuit neurons
what are interneurons? Interneurons are neurons that form connections between other neurons

what are neurons

Cells of the nervous system are known as?

What are nerve cells or neurons specialized for?

The human brain has approximately how many nerve cells or neurons?

What is the size of neurons?

Neurons are surrounded by a _______

Neurons have a _________ that holds the genes

Neurons have specialized cells called ________ that bring electrical signals to the cell body

How do neurons communicate with each other?

What are the two competing views on neurons?

what is the view of the neuron doctrine?

what does the proponents of the reticular theory believe?

Who proposed the theory about neural circuit organization?

What does the functional polarity theory state?

The main part of a neuron is called?

At the end of the axon is the _____

what is between the axon ending and the dendrite of the next neuron

what are node of Ranvier

what are myelin sheath

what is a bipolar neuron

Give an example of bipolar neuron

what is a unipolar neuron

what is a multipolar neuron

Give an example of multiple neurons

what is a neurotransmitter

what are pseudounipolar cells?

Give an example of pseudounipolar cells

What are the parts of a neuron?

An axon conducts nerve impulses _____ from the cell body

what are sensory neurons?

what are the major selective advantages provided by sensory neurons?

How does sensory neurons provide stronger behavioral response?

How do sensory neurons transmit their impulses?

what are neurons that transmit sensory information called?

what is the function of afferent neurons?

What is the function of Efferent neurons?

what are interneurons?

what is the function of motor neurons?

Motor neurons are also called?

What is the function of the efferent neurons?

Motor neurons carry electrical signals to ______

where are interneurons found?

Interneurons are also called _____

what are interneurons?

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