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what are vacuoles

they are vesicles that are used to digest waste, cell parts and foreign invaders

what are nucleus?

it contains the cellular DNA and stores genetic information

what is the function of the nucleus?

it controls the activities in the cell

where is nucleus found?

it is found in animal and plant cells

what is a nuclear membrane?

it is a layer that surrounds the nucleus

what is the function of the nuclear membrane?

it separates the nucleus with the other parts of the cell

what is a mitochondria?

it is an organelle that converts energy that the cell can use.

what is a chroloplast?

they form the site of photosynthesis

what is an endoplasmic reticulum?

it helps in the movement of materials around the cell.

Name the two types of endoplasmic reticulum

rough endoplasmic reticulum and smooth endoplasmic reticulum

what is the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum?

it manufactures proteins

what is the function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

it contains enzymes that help build molecules

what are microtubles?

they are long hollow tubes that are made up of proteins called tubulin

what is a ribosomes?

they are the sites of protein synthesis

what types of ribosomes are there?

large size 80s and smaller size 70s

what is the difference in chromosomes in eukaryotes and prokayotes?

in eukaroyes chromosomes are multi linear and contain histones, while in prokatyotes the chromosomes are single, circlular and lacks histones

what is the function of nuclear pores?

they allow the nuclear to communicate with the cytoplasm

what are nucleoli?

they are spherical bodies found inside the nuclear envelope

what are histones?

they are basic proteins contained in the nucleus

what are golgi complex?

they are structures that are involved in the secretion of proteins

what are vacuoles?

they are storage structures for metabolic waste, water and food

where do vacuoles come from?

they are derived from golgi bodies

what are peroxisomes?

they are structures that contain enzymes that can oxidize organic substances

what is a capsule?

it is a slime layer which covers the cell wall of the prokaryote.

what is the function of the capsule?

it is used to stick cells together. it also works as a food reserve. It also protects the cell from dryness

what is the capsule composed of?

it is composed of a thick polysaccharide

what is prokaryotic cell wall?

cell wall is a tough and rigid layer that surrounds prokayotic cells (and plant cell but never animal cells).

what is the function of the cell wall?

it provides strength and rigidity to the cell

what is the composition of cell wall?

it is composed of glycoprotein murein

what is the cytoplasm?

it is the fluid that fills the cell

what is the function of the cytoplasm?

it is important in cellular growth, metabolism and replication

what is plasma membrane?

also known as cell membrane, it surrounds the cell and is important in controlling the movement of substances in and out of the cell

what is plasma membrane composed of?

it is composed of proteins, phospholipids and carbohydrates which forms a fluid mosaic

what is a flagella?

it is the rotating tail

what powers the flagella?

the flagella is powered by H+ gradient across the cell membrane

what is a pili?

they are small protein appendage that attaches the bacteria to a surface

what are pili used for?

they are used in conjugation to exchange the genetic information

what is a mesosome?

they are folds that are present inside the plasma membrane

what is the function of mesosome?

they important in cellular respiration, replication of DNA, cell division