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what are the two types of vascular plants?

Angiosperm and Gymnosperm

what is meant if a plant is vascular?

it has a "pipe" that carry water and nutrients throughout the plant

what types of plants are non-vascular?

mosses and liverworts

what are angiosperms?

they are vascular plants with seeds that has flowers

where does angiosperms hold their seeds?

the fruits

why do flowers exist in angiosperms?

they attract pollinators for reproduction

why are angiosperms important?

they make medicine and wood products etc

In which of the following pairs are the two terms equivalent? A) ovule egg B) embryo sac female gametophyte C) endospermmale gametophyte D) seedzygote E) microsporepollen grain

embryo sac female gametophyte

Which of the following is the male gametophyte of a flowering plant? A) ovule B) microsporocyte C) pollen grain D) embryo sac E) stamen

pollen grain

Which of the following is the male gametophyte of a flowering plant? A) ovule B) microsporocyte C) pollen grain D) embryo sac E) stamen

pollen grain

In flowering plants, a mature male gametophyte contains A) two haploid gametes and a diploid pollen grain. B) a generative cell and a tube cell. C) two sperm nuclei and one tube cell nucleus. D) two haploid microspores. E) a haploid nucleus and a diploid pollen wall.

two sperm nuclei and one tube cell nucleus.

Within the female gametophyte, three mitotic divisions of the megaspore produce A) three antipodal cells, two polar nuclei, one egg, and two synergids. B) the triple fusion nucleus. C) three pollen grains. D) two antipodal cells, two polar nuclei, two eggs, and two synergids. E) a tube nucleus, a generative cell, and a sperm cell.

three antipodal cells, two polar nuclei, one egg, and two synergids.

The largest cell(s) of the typical angiosperm embryo sac is (are) the A) egg cell. B) antipodals. C) synergids. D) central cell. E) microsporocyte.

central cell.

In modern agriculture, what does "terminator technology" refer to? A) introduction of bacterial genes that release insect toxins into plants B) introduction of male sterility genes into plants to prevent selfing C) introduction of genes into a plant that prevent its seeds from maturing D) Bt genes produced in maize pollen E) selection of resistant clones following mutator treatment of seeds

introduction of genes into a plant that prevent its seeds from maturing

Flowers are made of modified A) roots. B) stems. C) leaves. D) ovules. E) shoots.

leaves.

Which of these is unique to flowering plants? A) a dominant sporophyte generation B) an embryo surrounded by nutritive tissue C) haploid gametophytes D) double fertilization E) pollen production

double fertilization

What is the relationship between pollination and fertilization in flowering plants? A) Fertilization precedes pollination. B) Pollination easily occurs between plants of different species. C) Pollen is formed within megasporangia so that male and female gametes are near each other. D) Pollination brings gametophytes together so that fertilization can occur. E) If fertilization occurs, pollination is unnecessary.

Pollination brings gametophytes together so that fertilization can occur.

Recent research has shown that pollination requires that carpels recognize pollen grains as "self or nonself." For self-incompatibility, the system requires A) rejection of nonself cells. B) the rejection of self cells. C) carpel incompatibility with the egg cells. D) that the flowers be incomplete. E) the union of genetically identical sperm and egg cells.

the rejection of self cells.

In plants, which of the following could be an advantage of sexual reproduction as opposed to asexual reproduction? A) genetic variation B) mitosis C) stable populations D) rapid population increase E) greater longevity

genetic variation

Which of the following is true about vegetative reproduction? A) It involves both meiosis and mitosis to produce haploid and diploid cells. B) It produces vegetables. C) It involves meiosis only. D) It can lead to genetically altered forms of the species. E) It produces clones.

it produces clones

The integuments of an ovule function to do what? A) protect against animal predation B) ensure double fertilization C) form a seed coat

form a seed coat

A fruit includes A) one or more seeds. B) the ovary wall. C) fleshy cells rich in sugars. D) brightly colored pigments to attract animal dispersers.

one or more seeds and the ovary wall

A fruit is a (an) A) mature ovary. B) mature ovule. C) seed plus its integuments. D) fused carpel. E) enlarged embryo sac.

a mature ovary

In angiosperms, products of the terminal cell become the A) suspensor. B) proembryo. C) cotyledons. D) suspensor and the proembryo. E) proembryo and the cotyledons.

proembryo and the cotyledons.

A seed develops from A) an ovum. B) a pollen grain. C) an ovule. D) an ovary. E) an embryo.

an ovule

Fruits develop from A) microsporangia. B) receptacles. C) fertilized eggs. D) ovaries. E) ovules.

ovaries

The first step in the germination of a seed is usually A) pollination. B) fertilization. C) imbibition of water. D) hydrolysis of starch and other food reserves. E) emergence of the radicle.

imbibition of water

When seeds germinate, the radicle emerges before the shoot. This allows the seedling to quickly A) obtain a dependable water supply. B) mobilize stored carbohydrates. C) protect the emerging coleoptile. D) avoid etiolation. E) initiate photosynt hesis.

obtain a dependable water supply.

a collection of sepals is called?

calyx

a collection of petals is called?

corolla

what is a receptacle?

receptacles is the top part of the stem supporting the flower.

what forms the hypanthium?

the receptacle

what are sepals?

Sepals are the outer part of the flower and its function is to protect the developing bud.

sepals and petals make up the?

perianth

what are regular flowers?

Regular flowers are sepals and petals that can be divided equally in several longitudinal planes

The sepals and petals of a regular plant are known as?

Actinomorphic.

flowers that are zygomorphic are known as?

irregular flowers

what are stamen?

Stamen are the male parts of a flower

Stamen are collectively called?

androecium

The sac that contains the pollen is known as the?

Anther

The stalk that connects the anther to the flower is known as?

Filament

Epipetalous is when the stamen is attached to the?

corolla

Gynandrous is when the stamen is attached to the?

pistil.

Diadelphous is when two groups of stamen are fused by the?

filament.

Monadelphous is when one group of stamen is fused by?

filament

complete flowers are flowers that?

have sepals, petals, stamen and pistils

Incomplete flowers are flowers that are missing?

one or more of the four parts of a flower i.e not complete flowers

Perfect flowers are flowers that?

have staments and pistils

Imperfect flowers are flowers that have either?

stamens or pistil