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what are neurons

neurons are specialized cells that transmit nerve impulses

Cells of the nervous system are known as?

nerve cells or neurons

What are nerve cells or neurons specialized for?

They are specialized to carry messages through electrochemical processes

The human brain has approximately how many nerve cells or neurons?

approximately 100 billion

What is the size of neurons?

some neurons are 4 micros wide, and the bigger neurons are 100 microns wide

Neurons are surrounded by a _______

cell membrane

Neurons have a _________ that holds the genes

neuron

Neurons have specialized cells called ________ that bring electrical signals to the cell body

dendrites

How do neurons communicate with each other?

Through electrochemical process

What are the two competing views on neurons?

The nervous system as a reticulum and the neuron doctrine

what is the view of the neuron doctrine?

the neuron doctrine regards each neuron as an individual component that communicates with the target cell through contiguity rather than continuity

what does the proponents of the reticular theory believe?

they believe that neurons are physically continuous with one another forming an interrupted notwork

Who proposed the theory about neural circuit organization?

Santiago Ramon

What does the functional polarity theory state?

it states that information flows in one direction through most neurons

The main part of a neuron is called?

soma or cell body

At the end of the axon is the _____

axon ending

what is between the axon ending and the dendrite of the next neuron

a synapse or synaptic gap or synaptic cleft

what are node of Ranvier

short lengths where the myelin sheath is interrupted and and axonal membrane is exposed

what are myelin sheath

myelin sheath is the insulating covering around the axon

what is a bipolar neuron

it is a neuron that has two neurites

Give an example of bipolar neuron

retinal cells and olfactory epithelium cells

what is a unipolar neuron

it is a neuron that has one neurite

what is a multipolar neuron

it is a neuron that has three or more neurites, the most common type of neuron

Give an example of multiple neurons

spinal neurons, pyramidal neurons, purkinje cells

what is a neurotransmitter

it is a chemical that is stored in the synaptic versticles

what are pseudounipolar cells?

Pseudounipolar cells are cells that have two axons rather that an axon and dendrite. One axon extend to spinal cord and the other to the skin or muscle

Give an example of pseudounipolar cells

dorsal root ganglion cells

What are the parts of a neuron?

dendrite, axon, cell body

An axon conducts nerve impulses _____ from the cell body

away from the cell body

what are sensory neurons?

sensory neurons are neurons that detect the environment

what are the major selective advantages provided by sensory neurons?

Increase stimulus sensitivity.Faster effector cell response. Stronger behavioral response

How does sensory neurons provide stronger behavioral response?

Multiple effector cells are influenced

How do sensory neurons transmit their impulses?

sensory neurons transmit their information towards the central nervous system. From dendrites to axons to CNS

what are neurons that transmit sensory information called?

afferent neurons

what is the function of afferent neurons?

afferent neurons transmit information from sensory organs or tissues to the CNS or brain

What is the function of Efferent neurons?

Efferent neurons transmit information from CNS to other parts of the body

what are interneurons?

Interneurons connect other neurons allowing for effective communication between neurons

what is the function of motor neurons?

motor neurons directly or indirectly control the contraction and relaxation of muscles

Motor neurons are also called?

motorneurons or efferent neurons

What is the function of the efferent neurons?

efferent neurons carry information from the CNS to muscle and other systems

Motor neurons carry electrical signals to ______

muscle

where are interneurons found?

Interneurons are found in the spinal cord and the brain

Interneurons are also called _____

associated neurons, relay neurons, connector neurons, local circuit neurons

what are interneurons?

Interneurons are neurons that form connections between other neurons