As the electrons move from one molecule to the next, what is their energy used to do?

it is used to move protons (H+) into the thylakoid


Where are the protons left?

They are left in the thylakoid


What are stacks of Thylakoids called?

Grana


What is the mechanism for E1 reaction of an alcohol?

The acid protonates the hydroxyl group on the alcohol, making water, which is a good leaving group. Water takes all the electrons of the water-Carbon bond and leaves, leaving behind a Carbocation (this is the slowest, rate determining step). The Carbocation may or may not rearrange to its most stable form. Finally, a water deprotonates a Carbon adjacent to the Carbocation, and a double bond between the two parties forms.


What is heat?

The TOTAL amount of kinetic energy due to the random motion of atoms or molecules in a body of matter; also called thermal energy. Heat is energy in its most random form.


If Mendel had performed experiemens on cattle rather than on peas, the patterns of inheritance would not have been easily detectable because cattle

have a small number of offspring


Which of the following is the site where sperm are stored until they are ejaculated?

tail of the epididymis


Why are the male testes located in the scrotum outside the body?

Immature sperm are temperature sensitive.


By what year did the United States have the most railroad track in the world?

1860


What was the role of Paul Revere in the American Revolution?

He took part in the Boston Tea Party. He also served as a messenger during the revolutionary War. He warned colonist that the British were on their way to Lexington


If a material has a very low U-value, is it a good or bad insulator?

Good


What can cause artifacts?

Artifacts likely if sample has hemolysis, hyperbilirubinemia, or lipemia. Improper processing may also cause artifacts. Drugs may also cause artifacts


When chromatin is tightly wound only some of it can be transcribed. What is the chromatin that CAN be transcribed called?

heterochromatin


for a system in simple harmonic motion, which of the following is the number of cycles or vibrations per unit of time?

frequency


Why did government officials need to learn poetry?

Government officials needed to learn poetry because it was a part of the civil service test


Which process causes substrates to bind to the enzyme active site?

Allosteric Activation


what happens during mitosis?

there is a division of somatic cells to create new, identical cells. each cell divides to create two new cells, which then divide to make four, and the four divide to make eight


what happens to ADP in the electron transport chain?

The ADP is reduced to ATP


If a car is going 40 km/h then speeds up to 60 km/h in five seconds what is the acceleration

40 km/h/sec


what is the SI unit of capacitance?

FARAD